Early 12th Dynasty[ edit ] The head of a statue of Senusret I. From the 12th dynasty onwards, pharaohs often kept well-trained standing armies, which included Nubian contingents. These formed the basis of larger forces which were raised for defence against invasion, or for expeditions up the Nile or across the Sinai. However, the Middle Kingdom was basically defensive in its military strategy, with fortifications built at the First Cataract of the Nile, in the Delta and across the Sinai Isthmus.
Prehistoric Egypt and Population history of Egypt There is evidence of petroglyphs along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishermen was replaced by a grain -grinding culture. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society.
The Badari culture and the successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade.
The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about BC.
A unified kingdom was founded BC by King Menesleading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia.
Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religionartslanguage and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period c. The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about years.
A second period of disunity heralded the arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the Semitic-speaking Hyksos. The New Kingdom c. The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism.
Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The country was later invaded and conquered by LibyansNubians and Assyriansbut native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.
Whilst not conclusive, because of the non-exhaustive time frame and restricted location that the mummies represent, their study nevertheless showed that these Ancient Egyptians "closely resembled ancient and modern Near Eastern populations, especially those in the Levant, and had almost no DNA from sub-Saharan Africa.
What's more, the genetics of the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the empire. Xerxes I tomb relief. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia.
Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often caused by an unwanted regime, and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest.
Egypt quickly became the Empire's breadbasket supplying the greater portion of the Empire's grain in addition to flax, papyrus, glass, and many other finished goods.
The city of Alexandria became a key trading outpost for the Roman Empire by some accounts, the most important for a time. Shipping from Egypt regularly reached India and Ethiopia among other international destinations.
Scholars such as PtolemyHypatiaand Heron broke new ground in astronomy, mathematics, and other disciplines. Culturally, the city of Alexandria at times rivaled Rome in its importance.
The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until —42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Arab Islamic Empire. The final loss of Egypt was of incalculable significance to the Byzantine Empire, which had relied on Egypt for many agricultural and manufactured goods.
Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with their Christian traditions as well as other indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.
The Mamluks continued to govern the country until the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks inafter which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarization damaged its civil society and economic institutions.
Portuguese traders took over their trade. The expulsion of the French in by OttomanMamlukand British forces was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mamluks, and Albanians — who were nominally in the service of the Ottomans — wrestled for power.
Out of this chaos, the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha emerged as a dominant figure and in was acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul as his viceroy in Egypt; the title implied subordination to the Sultan but this was in fact a polite fiction: Ottoman power in Egypt was finished and Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of In later years, the dynasty became a British puppet.
A more lasting result of his military ambition is that it required him to modernize the country.As Toby Wilkinson, in his magisterial new history of ancient Egypt, The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt, makes clear, the attitude of the average pharaoh towards dissent would have done credit to.
The Middle Kingdom ( BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which the culture produced some of its greatest works of art and literature.
Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom of Egypt with some arguing for the later half of the 11th.
In , the (nominally) independent Kingdom of Egypt was created following the British government's issuance of the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence. An economic history of the Middle East and North Africa (Routledge, ) Excerpt and text search; Kirk, George Eden.
Middle Kingdom of Egypt Following the First Intermediate Period was the Middle Kingdom Period, spanning from the 11th to part of the 13th Dynasties (some historians consider even the 14th Dynasty part of the Middle Kingdom).
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate caninariojana.com lasted from around BC to around BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Ancient Egyptian History -The Middle Kingdom. The First Intermediate Period ( BC) An intermediate period in ancient Egyptian history is a time when no one person or family ruled all of Egypt.